|Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus
Chilean name: Pingüino de Humboldt
The Humboldt Penguin is restricted to the waters of the Humboldt Current off the coasts of Chile and Peru. There is a distribution map on xeno-canto.
It nests on islands or on rocky shores and feeds inshore on fish and squid.
It is classed as Vulnerable by Birdlife International because of the relatively small and declining population of below 12,000. Its decline is largely due to the exploitation of guano deposits into which the penguin burrows to make its nest and to the overfishing of anchoveta which constitutes an important part of its diet.
|It has a thick bill with a pink area at the base of
the bill. This helps to distinguish it when at sea from the Magellanic
Penguin S. magellanicus which has a pink area restricted
to above the bill as well as a thicker supercilium.
On land the best distinguishing feature is its single black breast band compared to the double black breast band of the Magellanic Penguin.
Photo 5 shows a mixture of adult and juvenile birds with some in moult. Photo 6 shows a juvenile bird.