Tropical Parula Setophaga pitiayumi
(aka Parula pitiayumi)

Brazilian name: Mariquita
Female Tropical Parula, rio Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, August 2004 - click for larger image Brazil

The Tropical Parula is distributed in most of Central America and into South America as far south as Uruguay and northern Argentina but is absent from most of the Amazon Basin. See the distribution map at Birdlife International. It is found in forest borders, light woodland and scrub and it is often seen with mixed tanager flocks mainly in the canopy.

Female Tropical Parula, rio Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, August 2004 - click for larger image It is a dull blue above with an olive patch in the middle of the back. The two white wing-bars seem to vary in width between individuals. Below is mostly bright yellow and the crissum is white. The male in the 4th photo has a black mask and an ochraceous wash to the chest and throat both of which features are lacking in the female shown in the first 3 photos.
Female Tropical Parula, rio Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, August 2004 - click for larger image
Male Tropical Parula, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil, March 2004 - click for larger image
Tropical Parula, Serra de Baturité, Ceará, Brazil, October 2008 - click for larger image
Tropical Parula, Serra de Baturité, Ceará, Brazil, October 2008 - click for larger image
Tropical Parula, Serra de Baturité, Ceará, Brazil, October 2008 - click for larger image
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